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Directives

What are these directives? In simple terms, those are special command-line scripts that run special pieces of code for Esmerald.

Important

Before reading this section, you should get familiar with the ways Esmerald handles the discovery of the applications.

The following examples and explanations will be using the --app and environment variables approach but the auto discovery is equally valid and works in the same way.

Built-in Esmerald directives

Starting a project can be troublesome for some people mostly because there questions about the structure of the files and folders and how to maintain the consistency. This was mentioned in the Esmerald scaffold.

A lot of people cannot be bothered with running cookiecutters and go straight to their own design.

Check

Esmerald is in no way, shape or form opinionated about the application structure of any application but it provides some suggested options but it does not mean it should always be in that way. It simply serves as an option.

Currently there are two built-in directives.

  • directives - Lists all the available directives.
  • createproject - Used to generate a scaffold for a project.
  • createapp - Used to generate a scaffold for an application.
  • createdeployment - Used to generate files for a deployment with docker, nginx, supervisor and gunicorn.
  • show_urls - Shows the information about the your esmerald application.
  • shell - Starts the python interactive shell for your Esmerald application.

Help

To the help of any directive, run --help in front of each one.

Example:

$ esmerald runserver --help

Available Esmerald Directives

List Available Directives

This is the most simple directive to run and lists all the available directives from Esmerald and with a flag --app shows also the available directives in your project.

Only esmerald directives

$ esmerald directives

All the directives including your project

$ esmerald --app myproject.main:app directives

Or

$ export ESMERALD_DEFAULT_APP=myproject.main:app
$ esmerald directives

Create project

This is a simple directive that generates a folder structure with some files for your Esmerald project.

Parameters

  • --with-deployment - Flag indicating if the project generation should include deployment files.

    Default: False

  • --deployment-folder-name - The custom name of the folder where the deployment files will be placed if --with-deployment is True.

    Default: deployment/

  • -v/--verbosity - 1 for none and 2 displays all generated files.

    Default: 1

$ esmerald createproject <YOUR-PROJECT-NAME>

The directive will generate a tree of files and folders with some pre-populated files ready to be used.

Example:

$ esmerald createproject myproject

You should have a folder called myproject with a similar structure to this:

.
├── Makefile
├── myproject
│   ├── apps
│      └── __init__.py
│   ├── configs
│      ├── development
│         ├── __init__.py
│         └── settings.py
│      ├── __init__.py
│      ├── settings.py
│      └── testing
│          ├── __init__.py
│          └── settings.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── main.py
│   ├── serve.py
│   ├── tests
│      ├── __init__.py
│      └── test_app.py
│   └── urls.py
└── requirements
    ├── base.txt
    ├── development.txt
    └── testing.txt

A lot of files generated right? Yes but those are actually quite simple but let's talk about what is happening there.

  • Makefile - This is a special file provided by the directive that contains some useful commands to run your peoject locally, for example:

    • make run - Starts your project with the development settings.
    • make test - Runs your local tests with the testing settings.
    • make clean - Removes all the *.pyc from your project.
    • make requirements - Installs the mininum requirements from the requirements folder.

    Info

    The tests are using pytest but you can change to whatever you want.

  • serve.py - This file is simply a wrapper that is called by the make run and starts the local development. This should not be used in production.

  • main.py - The main file that builds the application path and adds it to the $PYTHONPATH. This file can also be used to add extra configurations as needed.
  • urls.py - Used as an entry-point for the application urls. This file is already being imported via Include inside the main.py.

Apps

What is an app in the Esmerald context?

An app is another way of saying that is a python module that contains your code and logic for the application.

As mentioned before, this is merely suggestive and in no way, shape or form consitutes as the unique way of building Esmerald applications.

The apps is a way that can be used to isolate your apis from the rest of the structure. This folder is already added to the python path via main.py.

You can simply ignore this folder or used it as intended, nothing is mandatory, we simply believe that besides a clean code, a clean structure makes everything more pleasant to work and maintain.

So, you are saying that we can use the apps to isolate the apis and we can ignore it or use it. Do you also provide any other directive that suggests how to design an app, just in case if we want?

Actually, we do! You can also use the createapp directive to also generate a scaffold for an app.

Create app

This is another directive that allows you to generate a scaffold for a possible app to be used within Esmerald.

Parameters

  • -v/--verbosity - 1 for none and 2 displays all generated files.

    Default: 1

  • --with-basic-controller - Flag indicating if the creation of an application should come with a basic controller example.

    Default: False

$ esmerald createapp <YOUR-APP-NAME>

Example:

Using our previous example of create project, let's use the already created myproject.

$ cd myproject/apps/
$ esmerald createapp accounts

You should have a folder called accounts with a similar structure to this:

.
├── Makefile
├── myproject
│   ├── apps
│      ├── accounts
│         ├── directives
│            ├── __init__.py
│            └── operations
│                └── __init__.py
│         ├── __init__.py
│         ├── tests.py
│         └── v1
│             ├── __init__.py
│             ├── schemas.py
│             ├── urls.py
│             └── views.py
│      └── __init__.py
│   ├── configs
│      ├── development
│         ├── __init__.py
│         └── settings.py
│      ├── __init__.py
│      ├── settings.py
│      └── testing
│          ├── __init__.py
│          └── settings.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── main.py
│   ├── serve.py
│   ├── tests
│      ├── __init__.py
│      └── test_app.py
│   └── urls.py
└── requirements
    ├── base.txt
    ├── development.txt
    └── testing.txt

As you can see, myproject/apps contains an app called accounts.

By default, the createapp generates a python module with a v1 sub-module that contains:

  • schemas.py - Empty file with a simple pydantic BaseModel import and where you can place any, as the import suggests, pydantic model to be used with the accounts/v1.
  • urls.py - You can place the urls of the views of your accounts/v1.
  • controllers.py - You can place all the handlers and views of your accounts/v1.

A tests file is also generated suggesting that you could also add some specific application tests there.

Check

Using a version like v1 will make it clear which version of APIs should be developed within that same module and for that reason a default v1 is generated, but again, nothing is set in stone and you are free to simply ignore this.

After generation

Once the project and apps are generated, executing make run will throw a ImproperlyConfigured exception. This is because the urls.py expects to be populated with application details.

Example

Let's do an example using exactly what we previously generated and put the application up and running.

The current structure:

.
├── Makefile
├── myproject
│   ├── apps
│      ├── accounts
│         ├── directives
│            ├── __init__.py
│            └── operations
│                └── __init__.py
│         ├── __init__.py
│         ├── tests.py
│         └── v1
│             ├── __init__.py
│             ├── schemas.py
│             ├── urls.py
│             └── views.py
│      └── __init__.py
│   ├── configs
│      ├── development
│         ├── __init__.py
│         └── settings.py
│      ├── __init__.py
│      ├── settings.py
│      └── testing
│          ├── __init__.py
│          └── settings.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── main.py
│   ├── serve.py
│   ├── tests
│      ├── __init__.py
│      └── test_app.py
│   └── urls.py
└── requirements
    ├── base.txt
    ├── development.txt
    └── testing.txt

What are we going to do?

  • Add a controller to the accounts.
  • Add the path to the urls of the accounts.
  • Add the accounts urls to the application urls.
  • Start the application.

Create the view

myproject/apps/accounts/v1/controllers.py
from esmerald import JSONResponse, get


@get()
async def home() -> JSONResponse:
    return JSONResponse({"message": "Welcome home!"})

Create a view to return the message Welcome home!.

Add the view to the urls

Now it is time to add the newly created view to the urls of the accounts.

myproject/apps/accounts/v1/urls.py
from esmerald import Gateway

from .views import home

route_patterns = [Gateway(path="/home", handler=home)]

Add the accounts urls to the application urls

Now that we have created the views and the urls for the accounts, it is time to add the accounts to the application urls.

Let's update the myproject/urls.py.

myproject/urls.py
from esmerald import Include

route_patterns = [Include("/api/v1", namespace="accounts.v1.urls")]

And that is it! The application is assembled and you can now start the application.

Start the application

Remember that a Makefile that was also generated? Let's use it to start the application.

make run

What this command is actually doing is:

ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE=myproject.configs.development.settings.DevelopmentAppSettings python -m myproject.serve

If you want another settings you can simply update the command to run with your custom settings.

Once the application starts, you should have an output in the console similar to this:

INFO:     Uvicorn running on http://localhost:8000 (Press CTRL+C to quit)
INFO:     Started reloader process [4623] using WatchFiles
INFO:     Started server process [4625]
INFO:     Waiting for application startup.
INFO:     Application startup complete.

Access the OpenAPI documentation

You can also access the application OpenAPI documentation and validate what was created.

Swagger:

Swagger

Redoc:

Swagger

Auto generated test files

The test files generated are using the EsmeraldTestClient, so make sure you run:

$ pip install esmerald[test]

Or you can skip this step if you don't want to use the EsmeraldTestClient at all.

Create deployment

This is another directive that allows you to generate a scaffold for a deployment using nginx, supervisor, gunicorn and docker.

Note

This generates a ready based files containing the minimum information need to speedup the deployment process and can/should be adapted to your needs but at least 80% of the configurations are already prepared for you.

The Dockerfile image comes with the minimum version of Python 3.12. It is recommended to update accordingly if you have any restrictions.

There are two ways of generating the deployments. One with the createproject and providing the necessary flags and the other one in isolation.

This directive is considered in isolation.

Parameters

  • --deployment-folder-name - The custom name of the folder where the files will be placed.

    Default: deployment/

  • -v/--verbosity - 1 for none and 2 displays all generated files.

    Default: 1

The default run and syntax is as follow:

$ esmerald createdeployment <YOUR-PROJECT-NAME>

Example:

Using our previous example of create project, let's use the already created myproject.

$ cd myproject/
$ esmerald createdeployment myproject

You should have a folder called deployment with a similar structure to this:

.
├── deployment
│   ├── docker
│      └── Dockerfile
│   ├── gunicorn
│      └── gunicorn_conf.py
│   ├── nginx
│      ├── nginx.conf
│      └── nginx.json-logging.conf
│   └── supervisor
│       └── supervisord.conf
├── Makefile
├── myproject
│   ├── apps
│      └── __init__.py
│   ├── configs
│      ├── development
│         ├── __init__.py
│         └── settings.py
│      ├── __init__.py
│      ├── settings.py
│      └── testing
│          ├── __init__.py
│          └── settings.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── main.py
│   ├── serve.py
│   ├── tests
│      ├── __init__.py
│      └── test_app.py
│   └── urls.py
└── requirements
    ├── base.txt
    ├── development.txt
    └── testing.txt

As you can see, all of the minimum files for your project are generated inside a default deployment/ folder and ready to be used saving you a tremendous amount of time.

But, what if you want to provide a different name for the deployment folder instead of deployment/?

Well, thanks to the parameter --deployment-folder-name you can specify the name of the folder and that will also reflect in the files.

Example:

Let us use myproject as an example and call the folder deploy instead of deployment.

$ esmerald createdeployment myproject --deployment-folder-name deploy

Once the directive runs, You should have a folder called deploy with a similar structure to this:

.
├── deploy
│   ├── docker
│      └── Dockerfile
│   ├── gunicorn
│      └── gunicorn_conf.py
│   ├── nginx
│      ├── nginx.conf
│      └── nginx.json-logging.conf
│   └── supervisor
│       └── supervisord.conf
├── Makefile
├── myproject
│   ├── apps
│      └── __init__.py
│   ├── configs
│      ├── development
│         ├── __init__.py
│         └── settings.py
│      ├── __init__.py
│      ├── settings.py
│      └── testing
│          ├── __init__.py
│          └── settings.py
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── main.py
│   ├── serve.py
│   ├── tests
│      ├── __init__.py
│      └── test_app.py
│   └── urls.py
└── requirements
    ├── base.txt
    ├── development.txt
    └── testing.txt

Run the Dockerfile

Since everything is already provided and your changes into the files are reflected, for example, making sure the requirements are installed inside the docker image, you can run the docker build for that same image directly from yhr project root.

Example

Using the myproject example, it would be something like this:

$ docker build -t myorg/myproject:latest -f deployment/docker/Dockerfile .

Tip

If you are not familiar with Docker, it is highly recommended to read the official documentation and get yourself familiar with it.

This should trigger the whole process of your Dockerfile and install everything accordingly.

Warning

If you don't want the same locations for the generated files, you can simply move them to any place at your discretion and update the files accordingly to reflect your custom settings.

Show URLs

This is another built-in Esmerald application and it simply to show the information about the URLs of your application via command line.

This command can be run like this:

Using the --app parameter

$ esmerald --app myproject.main:app show_urls

Using the ESMERALD_DEFAULT_APP environment variable already exported:

$ esmerald myproject.main:app show_urls

Runserver

This is an extremly powerfull directive and it should only be used for development purposes.

This directive helps you starting your local development in a simple way, very similar to the runserver from Django, actually, since it was inspired by it, the same name was kept.

Danger

To use this directive, uvicorn must be installed.

Parameters

  • -p/--port - The port where the server should start.

    Default: 8000

  • -r/--reload - Reload server on file changes.

    Default: True

  • --host - Server host. Tipically localhost.

    Default: localhost

  • --debug - Start the application in debug mode.

    Default: True

  • --log-level - What log level should uvicorn run.

    Default: debug

  • --lifespan - Enable lifespan events. Options: on, off, auto.

    Default: on

  • --settings - Start the server with specific settings. This is an alternative to ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE way of starting.

    Default: None

How to use it

Runserver has some defaults and those are the ones tipically used for development but let us run some of the options to see how it would look like.

Warning

The following examples and explanations will be using the auto discovery approach but the --app and environment variables is equally valid and works in the same way.

Run on a different port
$ esmerald runserver -p 8001
Run on a different host

Although it will still be localhost, we just run againt the IP directly.

$ esmerald runserver --host 127.0.0.1
Run with a different lifespan
$ esmerald runserver --lifespan auto
Run with different settings

As mentioned before, this is an alternative to the ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE approach and it should only be used for development purposes.

Use one or the other.

Let us assume the following structure of files and folders that will contain different settings.

myproject
.
├── Makefile
└── src
    ├── __init__.py
    ├── configs
       ├── __init__.py
       ├── development
          ├── __init__.py
          └── settings.py
       ├── settings.py
       └── testing
           ├── __init__.py
           └── settings.py
    ├── main.py
    ├── tests
       ├── __init__.py
       └── test_app.py
    └── urls.py

As you can see, we have three different types of settings:

  • development
  • testing
  • production settings

Run with development settings

$ esmerald runserver --settings src.configs.development.settings.DevelopmentAppSettings

Running with ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE would be:

$ ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE=src.configs.development.settings.DevelopmentAppSettings esmerald runserver

Run with testing settings

$ esmerald runserver --settings src.configs.testing.settings.TestingAppSettings

Running with ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE would be:

$ ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE=src.configs.testing.settings.TestingAppSettings esmerald runserver

Run with production settings

$ esmerald runserver --settings src.configs.settings.AppSettings

Running with ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE would be:

$ ESMERALD_SETTINGS_MODULE=src.configs.settings.AppSettings esmerald runserver